A foundation of precision medicine is the ability to define each patient’s genetic and biological characteristics to optimize therapeutic benefit for specific groups of patients based on the role of these characteristics within a disease condition. Biomarkers are an important method of determining a patient’s genetic and biological blueprint which can help the development of screening strategies to identify new targets for therapy as well as to inform clinical trial design. Once clinical trials are underway, biomarkers can help monitor disease progression, evaluate treatment response and determine risk assessment.

Ocular fluid biomarkers such as those identified in the aqueous humor of subjects with AMD are important tools for identifying biochemical changes at the organ level to help us determine patient characteristics of high-risk genetic subpopulations. Armed with these pharmacological data, Gemini can help to further characterize high-risk genetic patients who are most likely to benefit from our precision therapeutics. As our biomarker process progresses from single genetic screening markers to more complex biological and pharmacological signatures, we increase the chance for more specific data with a higher predictive value.